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Rubidium 87 radioactive dating
The creationist "til escape" dwting does not support their young earth model. Rubidium changes to a few state by having one of its neutrons turn into Rubidium 87 radioactive dating proton daitng handling out an rradioactive and an antineutrino and turning into Strontium In this past you determine the abundance of Rubidium and Strontium in many different minerals in the same one realistic sample. The creationist "argon escape" theory does not support their young earth topper. Therefore the amount of argon formed provides a direct measurement of the amount of information present in the specimen when it was originally formed. The diagram below shows the reasons for the six Apollo sites are determined from thier samples. See Guide 14 Dating in this web site.
We designate a specific group of atoms by using the term "nuclide. The element potassium Rubidium 87 radioactive dating K has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K Only K40 is radioactive; the other two are stable. K40 can decay in two different ways: The ratio of calcium formed to argon formed is fixed and known. Therefore the amount of argon formed provides a direct measurement of the amount of potassium present in the specimen when it was originally formed. Because argon is an inert gas, it is not possible that it might have been in the mineral when it was first formed from molten magma.
Any argon present in a mineral containing potassium must have been formed as the result of radioactive decay. F, the fraction of K40 remaining, is equal to the amount of potassium in the sample, divided by the sum of potassium in the sample plus the calculated amount of potassium required to produce the amount of argon found. The age can then be calculated from equation 1. In spite of the fact that it is a gas, the argon is trapped in the mineral and can't escape. Creationists claim that argon Rubidium 87 radioactive dating renders age determinations invalid.
The creationist "argon escape" theory does not support their young earth model. The argon age determination of the mineral can be confirmed Rubidium 87 radioactive dating measuring the loss of potassium. In old rocks, there will be less potassium present than was required to form the mineral, because some of it has been transmuted to argon. The decrease Rubidium 87 radioactive dating the Website hotsexy xxx of potassium required to form the original mineral has consistently confirmed the age as determined by the amount of argon formed. See Carbon 14 Dating in this web site. The nuclide rubidium decays, with a half life of Strontium is a stable element; it does not undergo further radioactive decay.
Do not confuse with the highly radioactive isotope, strontium Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of several nuclides, including the stable isotope strontium If three different strontium-containing minerals form at the same time in the same magma, each strontium containing mineral will have the same ratios of the different strontium nuclides, since all strontium nuclides behave the same chemically. Note that this does not mean that the ratios are the same everywhere on earth. It merely means that the ratios are the same in the particular magma from which the test sample was later taken. As strontium forms, its ratio to strontium will increase.
Strontium is a stable element that does not undergo radioactive change. In addition, it is not formed as the result of a radioactive decay process. The amount of strontium in a given mineral sample will not change. Therefore the relative amounts of rubidium and strontium can be determined by expressing their ratios to strontium These curves are illustrated in Fig It turns out to be a straight line with a slope of The corresponding half lives for each plotted point are marked on the line and identified. It can be readily seen from the plots that when this procedure is followed with different amounts of Rb87 in different minerals, if the plotted half life points are connected, a straight line going through the origin is produced.
These lines are called "isochrons". The steeper the slope of the isochron, the more half lives it represents. When the fraction of rubidium is plotted against the fraction of strontium for a number of different minerals from the same magma an isochron is obtained. If the points lie on a straight line, this indicates that the data is consistent and probably accurate. An example of this can be found in Strahler, Fig If the strontium isotope was not present in the mineral at the time it was formed from the molten magma, then the geometry of the plotted isochron lines requires that they all intersect the origin, as shown in figure However, if strontium 87 was present in the mineral when it was first formed from molten magma, that amount will be shown by an intercept of the isochron lines on the y-axis, as shown in Fig Thus it is possible to correct for strontium initially present.
The age of the sample can be obtained by choosing the origin at the y intercept. Note that the amounts of rubidium 87 and strontium 87 are given as ratios to an inert isotope, strontium However, in calculating the ratio of Rb87 to Sr87, we can use a simple analytical geometry solution to the plotted data. Again referring to Fig. Since the half-life of Rb87 is The samples from Apollo 11 and 12 are mostly basalts, so, as you can see, are ages of those sites is pretty well determined red. On the other hand, the samples from Apollo 14 are pretty much all impact breccias.
The age of the Apollo 14 site blue is much less constrained that that of Apollo 11 and Radioactive Decay Geologist determine the age of rock using a technique called radioactive dating. This technique relies on the fact that some elements in the rocks spontaneously change into other elements at a well defined rate. This spontaneous change is called radioactive decay. Radioactive decay occurs because some elements are more stable than others, and if nature gives the unstable elements a path to become more stable, they will take it. While there are many different elements that geologists use to determine the ages of rocks, One of the most common elemets used to determine the age of lunar samples is Rubidium Rb.
Rubidium Rb is the 16th most abundant element in the earth's crust, and is present in many different minerals. Most of the Rubidium in rocks This is called Rubidium It is nice and stable. However, a fraction of the Rubidium in rocks Rubidium is not stable and if given the Rubidium 87 radioactive dating, it would like to change to a stable state. This change to a stable state is what we call radioactive decay. Rubidium changes to a stable state by having one of its neutrons turn into a proton by kicking out an electron and an antineutrino and turning into Strontium This process is called beta-decay and can be written down like Rubidium 87 radioactive dating Half Life Now the key to this whole process, and why we can use it to determine the age of rocks, is that the radioactive decay of Rubidium happens at a very well defined rate.
This well defined rate is called the half-life. The radioactive decay of a single Rubidium atom will happen at a completely random time radioactive decay is one of the few truly random phenomena in nature. The half-life of Rubidium is A simple example see the diagram below: Let us say that you start with Rubidium atoms. After one half life you will have about Rubidium atoms and Strontium atoms. It is a finite resource. This means that is some pratical concern when it comes to determining the ages of Moon rocks. Since every measurement has some limit to how small an amount one can measure, if you want to measure the amount of radioacitve material in sample, you can not wait for s of half lifes.
Age of Rocks What this really means is that half-life of the element you are trying to measure sould be of the same order of magnitude as the age of the sample. For example, an element with a half-life of years is not a good choice for determining the age of Moon rocks, since it will have gone through about 3, half-lifes! At the other end of the scale, an element with a half-life of